Migration outstrips birth rate in the EU
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Migration outstrips birth rate in the EU

Malta has crude natural change rate of 1.5%, crude net migration rate of 4.2%

The EU population grew by 4.4 per 1000 inhabitants in 2008, due to natural population growth of +1.1‰ and net migration of +3.3‰, according to Eurostat figures issued today. In total, the EU27 population is estimated to have increased by 2.2 million in 2008 to 499.7 million.

The highest birth rates were in Ireland, the United Kingdom, France and Estonia.

Live births in the EU27 were estimated to be 5.4 million in 2008, corresponding to a crude birth rate of 10.8 per 1000 inhabitants. The highest birth rates were for Ireland (18.1%), the United Kingdom (13.0%), France (12.9%), Estonia (12.2%), Sweden (11.9%) and Denmark (11.8%). Germany (8.3%), Malta and Austria (both 9.2%), Bulgaria (9.4%), Italy and Portugal (both 9.6%)..

There were estimated to have been 4.8 million deaths in the EU27 in 2008, corresponding to a crude death rate of 9.7 per 1000 inhabitants. The highest death rates in 2008 were estimated for Bulgaria (14.2‰), Latvia (14.0‰), Lithuania (13.2‰) and Hungary (13.0‰). Ireland (6.1‰) has the lowest rate, followed by Cyprus (6.6‰), Luxembourg (6.9‰) and Malta (7.7‰).

Consequently, the highest natural growth of the population was in Ireland (+12.0 per 1000 inhabitants), well ahead of France (+4.5‰), Luxembourg (+4.3‰), Cyprus (+3.9‰) and the United Kingdom (+3.6‰). Eight Member States had a negative natural growth, with the largest falls in Bulgaria (-4.8‰), Latvia (-3.2‰), Hungary (-3.1‰), Lithuania (-2.6‰) and Germany (-2.0‰).

In 2008, three quarters of the increase in the EU population was estimated to have come from migration. In relative terms, Ireland (+14.1 per 1000 inhabitants), Slovenia (+12.6‰), Luxembourg (+11.9‰), Cyprus (+11.7‰) and Spain (+10.2‰) had the largest net migratory flows, while Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland had more emigration than immigration.

In conclusion, the population is expected to have increased in twenty Member States and decreased in seven, with considerable variations between Member States. The largest relative increases are estimated for Ireland (+26.1‰), Luxembourg (+16.2‰), Cyprus (+15.5‰), Slovenia (+13.5‰) and Spain (+12.5‰), and the largest decreases in Bulgaria (-5.0‰), Lithuania (-4.8‰) and Latvia (-4.3‰).

The figures for Malta show a population of 412,000, a crude birth rate of 9.2%, a crude death rate of 7.7%, a crude natural change rate of 1.5%, crude net migration rate of 4.2% and a total crude change rate of 5.6%.

Population change in the EU Member States, candidate and EFTA countries in 2008

Population
1.1.2008, [thousands]

Crude birth rate
[‰]

Crude death rate
[‰]

Crude natural change rate
[‰]

Crude net migration rate
[‰]

Crude total change rate
[‰]

Population
1.1.2009
[thousands]

EU27

497,455.0

10.8

9.7

1.1

3.3

4.4

499,673.3

EA15 + Slovakia

326,921.1

10.4

9.3

1.2

4.0

5.1

328,597.3

Belgium

10,666.9

11.5

9.5

2.0

5.0

6.9

10,741.0

Bulgaria

7,640.2

9.4

14.2

-4.8

-0.2

-5.0

7,602.1

Czech Republic

10,381.1

11.3

10.1

1.2

7.7

9.0

10,474.6

Denmark

5,475.8

11.8

9.9

2.0

6.0

7.9

5,519.3

Germany

82,217.8

8.3

10.3

-2.0

0.1

-1.9

82,062.2

Estonia

1,340.9

12.2

12.8

-0.6

0.1

-0.4

1,340.3

Ireland

4,401.3

18.1

6.1

12.0

14.1

26.1

4,517.8

Greece

11,213.8

9.8

9.3

0.6

3.8

4.3

11,262.5

Spain

45,283.3

11.0

8.7

2.3

10.2

12.5

45,853.0

France

63,753.1

12.9

8.4

4.5

1.0

5.5

64,105.1

Italy

59,619.3

9.6

9.8

-0.2

8.1

7.9

60,090.4

Cyprus

789.3

10.4

6.6

3.9

11.7

15.5

801.6

Latvia

2,270.9

10.8

14.0

-3.2

-1.1

-4.3

2,261.1

Lithuania

3,366.4

10.5

13.2

-2.6

-2.1

-4.8

3,350.4

Luxembourg

483.8

11.2

6.9

4.3

11.9

16.2

491.7

Hungary

10,045.4

9.9

13.0

-3.1

1.5

-1.5

10,029.9

Malta

410.3

9.2

7.7

1.5

4.2

5.6

412.6

Netherlands

16,405.4

11.3

8.2

3.1

1.5

4.6

16,481.1

Austria

8,331.9

9.2

8.8

0.4

2.6

3.0

8,356.7

Poland

38,115.6

10.8

10.0

0.8

-0.4

0.4

38,130.3

Portugal

10,617.6

9.6

9.7

0.0

1.4

1.3

10,631.8

Romania

21,528.6

10.4

11.9

-1.5

0.1

-1.5

21,496.7

Slovenia

2,025.9

10.0

9.1

0.9

12.6

13.5

2,053.4

Slovakia

5,401.0

10.4

9.8

0.6

1.2

1.9

5,411.1

Finland

5,300.5

11.2

9.2

1.9

2.7

4.6

5,325.1

Sweden

9,182.9

11.9

9.9

2.0

6.3

8.3

9,259.0

United Kingdom

61,186.0

13.0

9.3

3.6

3.3

6.9

61,612.3

Croatia

4,436.4

9.6

11.9

-2.3

1.3

-1.0

4,432.0

Former Yug. Rep. of Macedonia

2,045.2

11.0

9.2

1.8

0.1

1.8

2,048.9

Turkey

70,586.3

:

:

:

:

:

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Iceland

313.4

14.5

5.8

8.7

13.9

22.6

320.5

Liechtenstein

35.4

9.6

5.9

3.8

5.6

9.4

35.7

Norway

4,737.2

12.6

8.7

3.9

9.6

13.5

4,801.4

Switzerland

7,593.5

10.0

8.0

2.0

7.7

9.7

7,667.7

: Data not available

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